LLLT, lllt, laser therapy - biostimulation
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  Laser abstract
April 2000
Selected abstracts from "Laser & Health ´99, December 8-10 1999, Moscow. abstracts 99-10-00 Abstracts from Laser Florence '99
  Effect of helium-neon laser on wound healing. Releif of low back pain with low-reactive laser acupuncture techniques. Low-intensity laser therapy is an effective treatment for recurrent herpes simplex infection. double blind studie Possibilities of the treatment of certain diseases in stomatology with the help of non-invasive laser therapy.
  Biostimulation of human chondrocytes with Ga-Al-As diode laser: 'In vitro' research. Complex treatment of non-specific ulcerative colitis with low-level HeNe laser used transanally Review article: Clinical efficacy of low power laser therapy in osteoarthritis. A comparison between laser therapy and drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis
  Low-level laser effect on neurosensory recovery after sagittal ramus osteotomy. Treatment of myopia with helium-neon laser stimulation.

The interauricular laser therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

The treatment of bronchial asthma with LLLT in attack-free period in children.
  [Cytological parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage in patients withchronic obstructive bronchitis exposed to laser radiation of blood]. The comparative anaylis of using lowpower laser radiation, megnetic therapy and electrical stimulation in stabilization of visual functions in primary open-angle glaucoma. Low-intensity laser therapy for benign fibrotic lumps in the breast following reduction mammaplasty Wound healing on animal and human body with use of low level laser therapy - treatment of operated sport and traffic accident injuries: a randomized clinical study on 74 patients with control group.
  Effects of 780 nm diode laser irradiation on blood microcirculation: Preliminary findings on time-dependent T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Low-intensive laser therapy in complex treatment of patients with astrakhn rickettsial fever in the period of reconvalescence. Laser therapy: a randomized, controlled trial of the effects of low-intensity Nd:YAG laser irradiation on musculoskeletal back pain Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) controlled outcome of ionizing radiation side effects treated with 780 nm diode laser, preliminary results.
  [The treatment of posttraumatic uveitis with low-intensity laser Radiation]. Dynamics of lipid metabolism and peripheral blood flow rates in patients with atherosclerosis in conjunction with renal dysfunction after the course of combined laser therapy. Laser's effect on bone and cartilage change induced by joint immobilization: an experiment with animal model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) controlled outcome of ionizing radiation side effects treated with 780 nm diode laser, preliminary results.
    Clinical-pathogeneticlal aspects of combined laser therapy efficiency use in patients with diabetes mellitus, as compared with pharmacologic therapy. Clinical results evaluation of dentinary hypersensitivity patients treated with laser therapy. 100 double blind studies- enough or too little?
    Dynamics of hyperlipidemia and peripheral blood flow in patients with diabetes mellitus after the course of combined laser therapy in ambulatory-polyclinic conditions. Clinical results evaluation of dentinary hypersensitivity patients treated with laser therapy. Low level laser therapy can be effective for tendinitis: a meta-analysis.
    The effect of laser therapy in complex treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Stimulatory effect of 660 nm low level laser energy on hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts: possible mechanisms for increase in cell counts. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) contra Light Emitting Diode Therapy (LEDT) - what is the difference?
    Longterm experience of endovascular laser irradiation in myocardial infarction. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation enhanced by LLLT Comprehensive therapy of patients suffering from tinnitus.
    The transforming role of biological acceptor in the reaction of a low-intensive laser irradiation PhD dissertation on TMD problems Light dosimetry and preliminary clinical results for low level laser therapy in cochlear dysfunction.
    Cellular mechanisms of low power laser therapy.    
    Experimental study of low level laser radiation effects on human blood cells.    

 

 


Effect of helium-neon laser on wound healing. Indian journal of experimental biology. 1999; 37(2): 187-189
Bisht D, Mehrotra R, Singh P A et al.

Two linear skin wounds were produced on either side of dorsal midline in rats and immediately sutured. Wounds on the left side were irradiated daily with helium neon laser at 4 J/cm2 for 5 min., while those on right side were not exposed and served as controls. The mean time required for complete closure in control group was 7 days while irradiated test wounds took only 5 days to heal. The mean breaking strength, as measured by the ability of the wound to resist rupture against force, was found to be significantly increased in the test group. Early epithelization, increased fibroblastic reaction,leucocytic infiltration and neovascularization were seen in the laser irradiated wounds.


Biostimulation of human chondrocytes with Ga-Al-As diode laser: 'In vitro' research. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology. 2000; 28(2):193-201.
Morrone G, Guzzardella G A, Tigani D et al.

The aim of the study was to verify the effects of lllt performed with GaAlAs (780 nm, 2500 mW) on human cartilage cells in vitro. The cartilage sample used for the biostimulation treatment was taken from the fight knee of a 19-year-old patient. After the chondrocytes were isolated and suspended for cultivation, the cultures were incubated for 10 days. The culture were divided into four groups. Groups I, II, III were subject to biostimulation with the following laser parameters: 300J, 1W, 100Hz,10 min. exposure, pulsating emission; 300J, 1W, 300Hz, 10 min. exposure, pulsating emission; and 300J, 1W, 500Hz, 10 min. exposure, pulsating emission, respectively. Group IV did not receive any treatment. The laser biostimulation was conducted for five consecutive days. The data showed good results in terms of cell viability and levels of Ca and Alkaline Phosphate in the groups treated with laser compared to the untreated group. The results obtained confirm our previous positive in vitro results that the GaAlAs Laser provides biostimulation without cell damage.


Low-level laser effect on neurosensory recovery after sagittal ramus osteotomy. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology,and endodontics. 2000; 89(1):12-18.
Miloro-M, Repasky-M.

This study examined the potential benefit of perioperative and short-term postoperative low-level laser (LLL) therapy on objective and subjective neurosensory recovery after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy surgery. Six consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures were enrolled in this prospective study. A complete preoperative clinical neurosensory test, consisting of brush stroke directional discrimination, 2-point discrimination, contact detection, pin prick nociception, and thermal discrimination, was performed on each patient; and a subjective assessment of neurosensory function was made by using a visual analog scale (VAS). The protocol for LLL treatments consisted of real LLL (4 x 6 J per treatment) along the distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve at 4 sites, for a total of 7 treatments, delivered immediately before surgery; at 6 and 24 hours after surgery; and on postoperative days 2, 3, 4, and 7. The clinical neurosensory test and VAS were completed just before each of the treatment sessions and on days 14 and 28, by one examiner. When the results of the patients treated with LLL were compared with published values for neurosensory recovery after orthognathic surgery, there was a significant acceleration in the time course, as well as in the magnitude, of neurosensory return. Brush stroke directional discrimination approached normal values by 14 days, whereas 2-point discrimination and contact detection showed significant improvement at 14 days and returned to near-normal values by 2 months. The results of thermal discrimination and pin prick nociception revealed few neurosensory deficits; however, those patients who were affected showed a slower recovery trend ann remained neurosensory-deficient for up to 2 months. The VAS analysis revealed a rapidly progressive improvement in subjective assessment,showing a 50% deficit at 2 days and only a 15% subjective deficit at 2 months. This study demonstrates that neurosensory recovery after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures can be significantly improved, both in terms of time course and magnitude of return of function.


[Cytological parameters of bronchoalveolar lavage in patients withchronic obstructive bronchitis exposed to laser radiation of blood]. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 1999; 71(11): 65-67.
Ananchenko V G, Khanin A G, Gostishcheva O V.

Clinicocytological evaluation of the efficacy of combined treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) in exacerbation with application of laser radiation of blood was performed. Combined treatment with the use of He-Ne intravenous and transcutaneous radiation of blood was given to 32 patients with COB. 27 COB patients treated without blood irradiation served as control. In addition to conventional methods of examination and control of the treatment effect, cytological and bacteriological tests of BAL precipitate smears were made. Combined COB treatment with the use of laser blood radiation has an antiinflammatory action, promotes normalization of mucociliary transport, activation of phagocytosis and immune defense, cleansing of bronchial tree, reduction of obstruction effective management of exacerbations. Hospitalization decreased 3-4 days. Blood irradiation has the advantages as a noninvasive method.


Effects of 780 nm diode laser irradiation on blood microcirculation: Preliminary findings on time-dependent T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2000; 54(1): 55-60.
Schaffer M, Bonel H, Sroka-R et al.

To explore the effect of a low-power diode laser (lambda = 780 nm) on normal skin tissue, time-dependent contrast enhancement has been determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRT). In the examinations, six healthy volunteers have been irradiated on their right planta pedis (sole of foot) with 5 J/cm2 at a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm2. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is used to quantify the time-dependent local accumulation of Gadolinium-DPTA, its actual content in the local current blood volume as well as its distribution to the extracellular space. Images are obtained before and after the application of laser light. When laser light is applied the signal to noise ratio increases by more than 0.35 plus-or-minus sign 0.15 (range 0.23-0.63) after irradiation according to contrast-enhanced MRT. It can be observed that, after biomodulation with light of low energy and low power, wound healing improves and pain is reduced. This effect might be explained by an increased blood flow in this area. Therefore, the use of this kind of laser treatment might improve the outcome of other therapeutic modalities such as tumour ionizing radiation therapy and local chemotherapy.


[The treatment of posttraumatic uveitis with low-intensity laser Radiation]. Vestnik oftalmologii. 1999;115 5): 20-21.
inkova G A, Ionin A P, Ionina G I.

Eighty-two patients with severe posttraumatic uveitis (eye inflammation) which could not be treated by traditional antiinflammatory therapy were exposed to LLLT. The patients were divided into 3 groups: - infrared laser exposure semiconductor pulsed laser, - intravenous exposure of the blood to a He-Ne laser and - both treatments. The treatment efficacy was monitored by measuringlipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase in the lacrimal fluid. The treatment proved to be effective. The best results were attained by applying both methods of exposure, as was shown by sooner normalization of the content of lipid peroxidation products and activity of superoxide dismutase.


End of April abstracts

 

Moscow abstracts

Releif of low back pain with low-reactive laser acupuncture techniques.
Kurland H D. Aku.1999; 27(4):24.

12 patients who had refractory low back pain problems related to spinal arthritis and complicated by herniated discs were treated with GaAs laser acupuncture. Nogier frequencies 2.82 and 146 were mainly used. Used points not indicated in abstract. Effectiveness was observed with immediate improvement in pain and muscle spasms. Elimination of pain medication and improvment in functional activities was progressive in 10 of the 12 patients. Two patients with spinal stenosis failed to maintain improvement for more than a brief period. One had surgical relief of the stenosis and then responded with relief of post-operative symptoms.


Complex treatment of non-specific ulcerative colitis wuth low-level HeNe laser used transanally
Dubinkin V A, Mimrikova E G.

81 patients (average age 42) with non-specific ulcerous colitis were treated with trans-anal HeNe laser. After 10-12 sessions 72% of the patients noted a reduction of pain and the stool became rare. Coloscopy showed that the mucous membrane regenerated repidly with an increased vascular picture.


The comparative anaylis of using lowpower laser radiation, megnetic therapy and electrical stimulation in stabilization of visual functions in primary open-angle glaucoma.
Listopadove N A et al.

127 men with a primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG) were treated with either L/LT, megnetic therapy or electrical stimulation. The examination included visus, visocontrastometry and automatic static perimetry. The field of sight at an initial stage of POAG was 56% of laser, 52 for megnetic therapy and 27 for electrical stimulation. In the advanced stage the figures were 39, 37 and 18, respectively.


Treatment of myopia with helium-neon laser stimulation.
Rabadanova M G et al.

A new technique of stimulating the ciliary muscle in cases of progressing myopia is described. The positive results have been confirmed through measurement of the intraocular pressure, refraction reduction and increase of visual acuity.


Low-intensive laser therapy in complex treatment of patients with astrakhn rickettsial fever in the period of reconvalescence.
Kasatkin S N et al.

LLLT in the complex treatment of patients with astrakhn rickettsial fever caused a quicker disappearance of arthromyalgies and an improvment in the general health of the patients.


Dynamics of lipid metabolism and peripheral blood flow rates in patients with atherosclerosis in conjunction with renal dysfunction after the course of combined laser therapy.
Kovalyova T V et al.

During an 8 year period patients with atherosclerosis and renal dysfunction have been treated with intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI). The study has demonstrated a decreased level of total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol and triglycerides with an simultaneous increase of HDL cholesterol levels. No pharmaceuticals were given during the treatment period. The authors state that ILBI results in a stable hypolipidemic situation which prevents atherogenesis in patients with metabolic disorders, particularly in patients with renal pathologies.


Clinical-pathogeneticlal aspects of combined laser therapy efficiency use in patients with diabetes mellitus, as compared with pharmacologic therapy.
Kovalyova T V et al.

Long-term observations of the effect of ILBI in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus is reported. ILBI decreases the need for sugarcorrecting medications in patients with DM I and DM II 1.5-2 times, already after the first treatment. ILBI also improves microdynamics, macrodynamics and hemorheology in patients with diabetic anginopathies. A period of 3-6 month is needed to stop the progress of diabetic angiopathies.


Dynamics of hyperlipidemia and peripheral blood flow in patients with diabetes mellitus after the course of combined laser therapy in ambulatory-polyclinic conditions.
Oprysko T V et al.

218 patients with DM were treated with laser blood irradiation. 93 patients had DM I type and 125 DM II type. A HeNe laser of 2 mW was used intravenously. In addition an infrared 890 nm laser (5-20 mW) was used for irradiation over the projections of the liver, spleen and pancreas. Treatment was given daily for a period of 8 days. Repeated sessions were given at 3 and 6 months. Sugarcorrecting medications were decreased 200%. From the first day the patients´extremities grew warmer, pain decreased and symptoms of encephalopathy decreased. Levels of total blood cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides decreased to normal values with a simultaneous increase of alhpa-LP. Sugar concentration in blood also decreased.


The effect of laser therapy in complex treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Korolkova O M et al.

115 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of II-III degrees were treated with basic RA medications and infrared laser. In a control group of 20 patients only basic medication was given. 10 areas of the body were irradiated daily, increasing the dose every day during a period of 8-10 days. The effectiveness of the therapy was controlled through laboratory tests on i.a. inflammatory agents and the activity of lipid peroxidation. The results were statistically significant. The best effect was found in patients with degree II RA. Steroid medication could be reduced 8-10 days earlier in this group of patients and in some cases the medication could even be excluded. Degree III patients had a more moderate benefit of the laser treatment.


Longterm experience of endovascular laser irradiation in myocardial infarction.
Maximov N I et al.

HeNe intravenous laser irradiation is reported to decrease the reinfarction rate in patients with a story of myocardial infarction. A 2 mW HeNe laser was used, 40 min. duration each session


The transforming role of biological acceptor in the reaction of a low-intensive laser irradiation.
Burlakov A B et al.

The influence of low level laser on unfertilized oocytes and spermatozoons of fish was studied. HeNe and GaAs 862 nm was used. High quality eggs (fertilization above 70%) were not influenced by laser light. The development in eggs of mean quality (fertilization 30-60%) was boosted and the best effect was found in poor quality eggs (below 20%). The fertilization rate and the reduction of the number of abnormal developing embryos was measured. After temperatural inactivation both oocytes and spermatozoons, the irradiation not only restored the movability and fertilizating capacity, but also promoted the development of inactivated oocytes after fertilization by the irradiated sparmatozoons. Red and infrared light had different effects.


Cellular mechanisms of low power laser therapy.
Karu T I.

Cytochrome c oxidase is discussed as a possible photoacceptor when cells are irradiated with monochromatic red to near-IR radiation. Five primary action mechanisms are reviewed: changes in the redox properties of the respiratory chain components following photoexcitation of their electronic states; generation of singlet oxygen, localized transient heating of absorbing chromophores release of NO, and increased superoxide anion production with subsequent increase in concentration of the product of its dismutation, H202. A cascade of reactions connected with alternation in cellular homeostasis parameters (pHi, [Cai], Eh, [ATP] and some others) is considered as a photosignal transduction and amplification chain in a cell (secondary mechanisms)


 

Experimental study of low level laser radiation effects on human blood cells.
Siposan D, Adalbert L (Bucharest, Roumania).

Fresh blood from 40 apparently healthy individuals has been irradiated with a low level HeNe laser, using EDTA anticoagulant. Doses ranged between 0-54 J/cm2. The authors watched the relative variation to the received doses of hemoreological constants - erythrocytary and leukocytary indices, as well as the variation of some erythrocytary aggreagability indices-viscocity, BSR. Following irradiation a lowering of the erythrocytary aggreagability (viscosity), BSR, and changes of some erythrocytary and leukocytary indices have been observed. The effect of low-level laser radiation on the red cell confirms the non-resonant mechanism of this bio-stimulating radiation effect by the changes in the cell membrane, in our case the blood cells, by revitalizing the red blood cell functional capacities and by several biochemical effects on the membrane level, that are to be studied thoroughly in future studies. It is concluded that the physical-biochemical and biological effects on blood can influence the physical-chemical parameters needed for long storage of blood products as well as the quick revitalization of the erythrocytary membrane aggressed physically and biochemically, in order to perform its oxophoric function in transfusion procedures.


 

To follow: Abstracts from The 2nd Congress of the International Association for Laser and Sports Medicine, Rosario, Argentina, March 10-12 2000.

Human gingival fibroblast proliferation enhanced by LLLT

Almeida-Lopes L. [Analysis in vitro of the cellular proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts with low level laser.] 1999. Dissertation at Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Human gingival fibroblast were cultured in Petri dishes with different Fetal Bovine Serum concentration, 5% or 10%. Four irradiations of 2 J/cm2 were given with 12 hours intervals. Lasers with 670, 692, 780 and 786 nm were used. Cells in 5% FBS profilerated better than in all control groups whereas the cells in the 10% FBS did not proliferate better than controls. The 670 and 692 visible lasers caused a higher improvment in cell proliferation that the infrared lasers. This study confirms the fact that cells in a less-than-optimal stage react better to LLLT than cells in an optimal nutritional stage. It also confirms that visible red is the best wavelength for suferficial wound healing.


 

PhD dissertation on TMD problems

Dr Sajee Sattayut of The Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry (professor Paul Bradley) has put forward his PhD thesis on the effect of 820 nm low level laser on patients with TMD (temporo-mandibular-joint-disorders). In a double blind study on 30 female TMD patients one group was given placebo laser, one a low dose from a 60 mW laser and the third a high dose from a 300 mW GaAlAs laser. Three treatments were given during one week. The patients in the high energy density group had significantly increases in Pressure Pain Threshould and EMG amplitude, recorded from voluntary clenching. A significantly greater number of patients recovered from myofacial pain and TMJ arthralgia as assessed clinically in the higher energy group. At a period of 2 to 4 weeks review after LLLT, there was an average 52% reduction of pain as assessed by Symptom Severity Index pain questionnaire. In an in vitro study laser was observed to reduce IL-1 stimulated PGE2 production.

Other recent dissertations:
Luciana Almeida-Lopes DDS, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo. Brazil: Análise in vitro da proliferação celular de fibroblastos de gengiva humana tratados com laser de baixa potencia.

Julia Kenter DDS, Dental faculty of the UNI Aachen, Germany. Die Anwendung des low-level-laser in der Human, Dental- & Veterinärmedizin.


 

Navtrátil L, Navtrátilová B. Possibilities of the treatment of certain diseases in stomatology with the help of non-invasive laser therpay.

382 dental patients were evaluated. The results demonstrated the contribution of therapeutic laser to the treatment of herpetic affections, aphtae, erosions, decubiti on the mucous membrane, conditions after difficult extractions, papilitis, wounds after teeth resection, lingua geographica, scar and dentintal hypersensitivity.


 

Passeniouk A M, Michailov V A. A comparison between laser therapy and drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis

30 women with non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis were treated with LLLT and topical chlorhexidine application daily for ten days. 20 women with the same condition were treated with metronidazole (10 g as course dose) and fluconozole (150 mg single dose) and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser therapy is able to remove signs of vaginitis more efficiently than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora was significantly faster in the laser group. There were no side effects in the laser group whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects.


 

Ailioaie C, Ailioaie L. The treatment of bronchial asthma with LLLT in attack-free period in children.

98 patient aged 10-18 years, diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma were divided into three groups. -Group 1: 35 patients received laser acupuncture using extrameridian acupuncture points plus scanning. Lasers used were 670 and 830 nm, 50 and 200 mW respectively, in continous mode. Treatment was given twice daily 10 days per month, 3 months in total. No other therapy was given. -Group 2: 33 patients inhaled Salmeterol xinofoat 2 x 25, twice daily for 3 months. -Group 3: 30 patients were treated with Theophylline retard 15 mg/kg every 12 hr for 3 months. Results: A noticeable improvement in the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics were observed in 83% of the patients in group 1, 70 in group 2 and 53 in group 3. There were no side effects in the laser group.


 

Simunovic Z, Ivankovich A D, Depolo A. Wound healing on animal and human body with use of low level laser therapy - treatment of operated sport and traffic accident injuries: a randomized clinical study on 74 patients with control group.

A wound healing study on rabbits suggested that 4 J/cm2 was the optimal dose. A clinical study was performed on 74 patients suffering from injuries of soft tissue upon traffic accidents and sport activities. Two types of lasers were used: 830 nm for Trigger point treatment and a ciombined 633/904 for scanning, both applied in monotherapy. Clinical parameters studied were redness, heat, pain, swelling, itching and loss of function. Wound healing was accelerated 25-35% in the laser group compared to the control group. Pain relief and functional recovery was significantly improved in the laser group as well.


 

Schaffer M et al. Effects of 780 nm diode laser irradiation on blood microcirculation - study by time dependent T1-wieghted enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Six healthy volounteers were irradiated on their right pianta pedis with 5J/cm2 and a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm2. T1-weighted MRI was used to quantify the time-dependent local accumulation of Gadolinium DPTA, which semi-quantitatively reflects local blood flow. Images were obtained before and after laser application. LLLT resulted in an increase of signal to noise ratio of more than 0.34 (range 0.23-0.63) after irradiation according to contrast enhanced MRI. Increased blood flow offers an explanation for the clinical observation of improved wound healing and reduced pain after LLLT. The effect might complete and improvce the outcome of other therapeutic modalities such as tumor ionizing radiation therapy and local chemotherapy.


 

Schaffer M et al. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) controlled outcome of ionizing radiation side effects treated with 780 nm diode laser, preliminary results.

Three women with painful mastitis after breast ionizing irradiation and a man with an ionizing ulcer were treated with 780 nm, 5 J/cm2. The healing of the ulcers was controlled using MRI measurement before and after treatment. In all patients a complete clinical remission was noted following LLLT. The results were confirmed by a decrease in inflammatory changes as depicted in MRI imaging.


 

Tunér J, Hode L. 100 double blind studies- enough or too little?

There are more than 100 positive double blind studies in the field of Low Level Laser Therapy. This is more than the critics seem to be aware of. However, in a thorough Medline search only 26 of these studies were found. 34 of the 100 studies have only been found as abstracts and another ten only as references. The average rating for parameter account (1-5 with 5 high) was 3.0. The 56 fully published studies had a better score, 3.6. The number of indications studied was 18. In conclusion, the positive double blind studies are more than usually expected but they are difficult to find.


 

Bjordal J M. Low level laser therapy can be effective for tendinitis: a meta-analysis.

A literature search identified 77 randomized clinical trials with LLLT, of which 18 included tendinitis. Three trials were excluded for lack of placebo control, of which one was comparative, another lacked patients with tendinitis in the treatment group, while the last unwittingly gave the placebo group active treatment. Four trials used too high power density or dose, and three did not expose the skin directly overlying the injured tendon. The remaining eight trials were included in a statistical pooling, where the mean effect of LLLT over placebo in tendinitis was calculated to 29.5% (19.5-39.0). LLLT with optimal treatment procedure/parameters can be effective in the treatment of tendinitis.


 

Hode L, Tunér J. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) contra Light Emitting Diode Therapy (LEDT) - what is the difference?

While LEDT has been found to be a good treatment modality for many indications such as wound healing and pain, no study, so far, has demonstrated that LEDT is better than LLLT, nor that is is as effective as LLLT. In the literature, 15 studies have been identified, comparing coherent and non-coherent light therapy. In all these studies LLLT has been shown to give better results. Yet, it is not uncommon for LEDT salesmen to make reference to LLLT research, as LEDT and LLLT would be the same. Coherent light gives typical laser specles, small zones of polarized light. The coherence is not lost (as often claimed) when laser light pentetrates tissue, but the length of coherence is reduced. The penetration of the coherent light can be studied in the following manner: A speciment of freshly minced beff is placed between two pieces of glass. On one side a red laser, a light torch and a red LED light is placed. When activated the three light zones can be seen on the reverse side of the beef plate. All light zones are red (demonstrating the penetration capacity of red light), but only the laser light demonstrates specles. Thus, the coherence has been maintained even after the penetration of the meat.


 

Prochazka M, Tejnska R. Comprehensive therapy of patients suffering from tinnitus.

37 patients suffering from tinnitus (age 18-86 years) were treated in three ways: 1. Rehabilitation: mobilisation, physical training, physiotherapy. 2. Same as 1 but with placebo laser added. 3. Same as 1 but with functional laser added. Laser used was 830 nm 300 mW. 2-3 treatments per week were given, total 10 treatments. Treatment protocol: 90 J/cm2 CW on mastoideus, 45 J/cm2 5 Hz on mastoideus, 50 J/cm2 CW on acoustic duct, 25 J/cm2 5 Hz on acoustic duct. Tebokan Egb 761 ginko medication was added to treatment. Results were classified as no effect/less than 50% relief/more than 50% relief/no more tinnitus. The percentwise outcome for the three groups was: 1. 29.4/44.1/17.6/8.9 2. 25.8/48.4/25.8/0 3. 19.4/19.4/35.5/25.8


 

Beyer W et al. Light dosimetry and preliminary clinical results for low level laser therapy in cochlear dysfunction.

The light distribution inside the cochlear windings produced by irradiation of the tympanic membrane was quantitatively measured ex vivo for wavelengths of 593, 612, 635, 690, 780 and 805 nm by means of video dosimetry. The transmission of light across the tympanic cavity and the promontory depends strongly on the wavelength. Spatial intensity variations of a factor of 10 and more inside the cochlear windings have been measured. The clinical study was performed with 30 patients suffering from chronic permanent tinnitus. 5 irradiations within 2 weeks each with a space irradiation of 4J/cm2 were applied at the cochlear position to be treated. Diode lasers of 635 or 830 nm, 15 patients each, were used. During and after irradiation there was no significant change of hearing. However, 40% of the patients reported a slight to significant attenuation of the tinnitus loudness of the treated ear. There was no difference between the two wavelength groups. A double blind controlled study is in preparation.


 

End of abstracts from Laser Florence '99

Schindl A, Neuman R. Low-intensity laser therapy is an effective treatment for recurrent herpes simplex infection. Results from a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study.

J Investigative Dermatology. 1999; 113 (2): 221-223.

50 patients with recurrent perioral herpes simplex infections (at least once a month for more than 6 months) were treated with 690 nm, 80 mW laser, 48 J/cm2, in a double blind study. Patients received daily irradiations for two weeks, 10 treatments. The treatment was given in a recurrence-free period and the irradiation was given at the site of the original herpes simplex infection. If both lips were involved, both upper and lower lips were treated. Patients were monitored for 52 weeks. The mean recurrence-free interval in the laser group was 37.5 weeks (range; 2-52 weeks) and in the placebo group 3 weeks (range 1-20 weeks). No side effects were noted.


Review article: Marks R, de Palma F. Clinical efficacy of low power laser therapy in osteoarthritis.

Physiotherapy Research International. 1999; 4 (2): 141-57.

Of the various physical interventions used to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis, a common degenerative joint disease causing considerable pain and disability, low power laser therapy has been reported to be extremely successful in Russia and Eastern Europe. Although the overall number of studies was small, this literature review and analysis highlights the relevant controlled clinical trials and related basic research in English-language publications. This review indicates that, despite their shortcomings, the six studies analysed did report post-treatment improvements in a variety of osteoarthritic problems, including pain, mobility, tenderness and function, with few adverse effects. Possible mechanisms documented for the observed results included peripheral nerve stimulation, resolution of inflammation, enhanced chondrocyte proliferation and increased matrix synthesis. Not all studies were affirmative and few detailed how reliable their measurements were. Clearly, much more work is needed in this area.

A pilot study used six Sprague-Dawley rats - three controls with no treatment and three that were irradiated for 250 seconds with 630 nm. All rats were wounded on both hips - an 8mm circular full thickness hole. The irradiated rats received the 630nm 5 J/cm2 dose on only the left hip. The animals were irradiated one hour after the wounds were given and then one dose per day for four days. The results are: ten days after wounding the closure on the control rats averaged 26%, but irradiated rats averaged a closure of 65% on both left (irradiated) and right hips - a systemic effect on the right, as it received no irradiation.



The interauricular laser therapy of rheumatoid arthritis). Interaurikuliarnaia lazernaia terapiia revmatoidnogo artrita. Sidorov-V-D, Mamiliaeva-D-R, Gontar-E-V, Reformatskaia-SIu.


Vopr-Kurortol-Fizioter-Lech-Fiz-Kult. 1999; (3): 35-43.

Investigations have proved the ability of interauricular low- intensity infrared laser therapy (0.89 nm, 7.6 J/cm) to produce anti- inflammatory, immunomodulating action in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.The method has selective, pathogenetically directed immunomodulating effect the mechanism of which is similar to that of basic antirheumatic drugs and of intravenous laser radiation of blood. This laser therapy can be used as an alternative to intravenous blood radiation being superior as a noninvasive method. Interauricular laser therapy can potentiate the effects of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, cytostatics and diminish their side effects.


.Low-intensity laser therapy for benign fibrotic lumps in the breast following reduction mammaplasty. Nussbaum-E-L.

Physical Therapy. 1999; 79 (7): 691-698.

Fibrotic masses in the breast secondary to fat necrosis or hematoma are a complication of breast reduction mammaplasty. The treatment commonly recommended for this condition is early surgical debridement of necrotic tissue from the entire area, which causes scarring. This case report describes the use of low- intensity laser therapy for fibrotic lumps following reduction mammaplasty. Case Description: The patient was a 46-year-old woman who had breast reduction surgery 80 days prior to referral for physical therapy. At the time of referral, the largest mass was 8.0 cm in diameter. The patient reported pain and said she was distressed about the breast disfigurement. Laser irradiation was initiated at anenergy density (ED) of 20J/cm2 and a pulse repetition rate of 5,000 pulses per second. The laser settings were adjusted during the 8-month treatment period. The final ED was 50J/cm2. The mass was 33% of its original size after 3 treatments over the initial 11-day period. Pain relief was immediate. The rate of resolution decreased after the initial period. The patient had some tissue thickening at the time of discharge after 6 months of treatment.


Laser therapy: a randomized, controlled trial of the effects of low-intensity Nd:YAG laser irradiation on musculoskeletal back pain. Basford-J-R, Sheffield-C-G, Harmsen-W-S

Arch-Phys-Med-Rehabil. 1999; 80 (6): 647-52, .

This study was assessed to investigate the effectiveness of low-intensity Nd:YAG laser therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal low back pain as a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. 63 ambulatory men and women between the ages of 18 and 70 years with symptomatic nonradiating low back pain of more than 30 days' duration and normal neurologic examination results took part. Subjects were bloc randomized into two groups with a computer-generated schedule. All underwent irradiation for 90 seconds at eight symmetric points along the lumbosacral spine three times a week for 4 weeks by a masked therapist. The sole difference between the groups was that the probes of a 1.06 micron Nd:YAG laser emitted 542mW/cm2 for the treated subjects and were inactive for the control subjects. The treated group had a time-dependent improvement in two of the three outcome measures: perception of benefit and level of function. These results were most marked at the midpoint evaluation and end of treatment but tended to lessen at the 1-month follow-up . Lumbar mobility did not differ between the groups at any time. Treatment with low-intensity 1.06 micron laser irradiation produced a moderate reduction in pain and improvement in function in patients with musculoskeletal low back pain. Benefits, however, were limited and decreased with time.


. Laser's effect on bone and cartilage change induced by joint immobilization: an experiment with animal model. Akai M, Usuba M, Maeshima T, Shirasaki Y, Yasuoka S.


Lasers Surg Med. 1997. 21(5): 480-4.

The influence of low-level (810 nm)) laser on bone and cartilage during joint immobilization was examined with rats' knee model. The hind limbs of 42 young Wistar rats were operated on in order to immobilize the knee joint. They were assigned to three groups 1 wk after operation; irradiance 3.9 W/cm2, 5.8 W/cm2, and sham treatment. After 6 times of treatment for another 2 wk both hind legs were prepared for 1) indentation of the articular surface of the knee (stiffness and loss tangent), and for 2) dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density) of the focused regions. The indentation test revealed preservation of articular cartilage stiffness with 3.9 and 5.8 W/cm2 therapy. Soft laser treatment may possibly prevent biomechanical changes by immobilization.


Clinical results evaluation of dentinary hypersensitivity patients treated with laser therapy.
Brugnera A, Cruz FM, Zanin FA & Pecora JD.

Proc. SPIE Vol. 3593, 1999, p. 66-68.

300 human teeth were treated for hypersensitivity during the period 1995-1997. Pulpal vitality was verified using thermal tests, and only reversible processes were treated. HeNe and GaAlAs lasers were used. All teeth received 4 J/session, up to 5 sessions. 79% of the patients were treated in 3 sessions with success; 8.6% were cured in 4 sessions; and 4.3% were successfully treated in 5 sessions, obtaining 92% success in total.


Stimulatory effect of 660 nm low level laser energy on hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts: possible mechanisms for increase in cell counts. Webb C, Dyson M, Lewis WH.

Lasers Surg Med. 1998; 22(5):294-301.

The experiments investigated the effect of a 660 nm, 17 mW laser diode at dosages of 2.4 J/cm2 and 4 J/cm2 on cell counts of two human fibroblast cell lines, derived from hypertrophic scar tissue and normal dermal tissue explants. Estimation of fibroblasts utilized the methylene blue bioassay. Post-660 nm-irradiated hypertrophic scar fibroblasts had very significantly higher cell counts than controls.



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