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Guest Editorial


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ABOUT TIME TO GET TO SPEAK THE SAME LANGUAGE
By Corral-Baqués, Marc-Ignasi MD, MSc; Rigau, Josepa MD, PhD
See other editorials


 

LaserWorld invites you to send a Guest editorial.

Clinicians, researchers and other persons in the world of LLLT are invited to send a contribution.
The subject is entirely up to the guest editor. It can be results from pilot studies, thoughts about dosages, nomenclature, suggestions for new research, interesting clinical observations, a glimpse of information about the direction of on-going research and so forth.

We feel there is a need for an interim forum for LLLT information. A good study can take a year to complete and another year or so of waiting before it is accepted for publication. Then, a quick look at the results could be valuable. And further, many qualified clinicians do not have the time, money or patience to make scientific studies.
But still they have a lot of expertice which they would be willing to share with others, should there be a suitable forum for it. And from the perspective of the therapist: Who can afford to subscribe to several scienticis magazines? So where can I find out about new research and new clinical observations without spending a fortune on subscriptions and congresses?

Well, this is precicely the "void" LaserWorld Guest Editorial wants to fill! Several persons have been invited to send their contribution. But we certainly accept unsolicited contributions, but reserve the right to edit them (in cooperation with the author) or to refuse publication.

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  Antipodean perspectives of the World Association for Laser therapy (WALT) Conference, June 27-30, Tokyo, Japan.

By Phil Gabel, Sports Physiotherapist and Grad. Dip. Science by Research in laser therapy, Australia, and Jan Tunér DDS, Sweden, .

The congress was held at Tsukuba, the second name of which is Science City, because it is the location of many large research institutes and more than 7000 scientists. Tsukuba is situated in the beautiful countryside some 40 miles north of Tokyo by the foot of Mount Tsukuba. An express bus took participants to Tsukuba directly from the Narita International Airport on a scenic two-hour tour among rice fields and rural areas in the Ibaraki prefecture. This biannual multidisciplinary conference and meeting is the high point for researchers, users and theoreticians interested in laser therapy. A total of some 350 delegates from approximately 30 countries were represented. The 4 day conference is a milestone in that it gathers together the world’s leading researchers ad clinicians in the various fields of laser therapy use and enables the most up to date research and ideas to be presented and openly discussed. The congress venue was spacious and the arrangements as well as the technical support were excellent.

Best papers for the conference were given to researchers from Sao Paulo in Brazil who demonstrated the positive effects of laser therapy on bone healing and remodulation, and from Kagoshima in Japan who demonstrated the in-vivo effect of laser therapy on human subjects with chronic pain. This latter paper showed that linear polarized light, by improving the Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (RCBF) through the proposed action of changes to the thalamic blood flow, in turn influences the RCGF and consequentially reduces pain levels. This provides an alternative systemic pathway for chronic pain modulation using light. References are as follows:

Renata A. Nicolau, Vanda Jorgetti, Josepa Rigau, Marcos T. T. Pacheco, Renato A. Zangaro. "Effect of low power laser Ga-Al-As (660nm) in the bone tissue remodulation in mice”

Takashi Gushiken, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Takashi Masuyama, Yukiko Yagi, Kazumi Tobo, Isao Tsuneyoshi, Hiroshi Dohgomori, Yasuyuki Kakihana, Yuichi Kanmura. “Effects of linear polarized infrared irradiation therapy on the regional cerebral blood flow.”

Other significant papers from the conference were those from Belgium on the interaction of laser therapy and pharmaceuticals; Russia on the systemic effects of laser therapy on the blood; from Norway on the optimal laser therapy dose for the management of osteoarthritis, tendon depth for consideration of penetration and subsequent laser therapy dose as well as a meta-analysis that demonstrates the positive effects of laser therapy; from Brazil a furthering of the theoretical model of interaction of laser therapy with high energy bonds that improves the understanding of wavelength specificity and ATP biodisposability; and from Italy the determination of the preferred wavelength for the management of fibromyositis.
Of further interest is that laser therapy is now becoming approved in the USA by the FDA in specific circumstances, and that the US Dept. of Defence continues to fund light research with investigations into the healing properties of light to assist infield combat injuries for healing and pain control, the specific emphasis on the 810-830 nm range. From Europe new scientific evidence had led to the reversion of a rejection of approval decision by DEKRA, which now opens for marketing Laser Therapy equipment as medical devices within the European Community. In some European countries like Norway and Switzerland achievements have been made in terms of gaining reimbursement of Laser Therapy by Health Insurance Authorities. Progress was also steady in South America and in the Middle East, while the situation remains difficult in the North American, Australian and African continents.
The next conference is to be held in 2004, this time in Sao Paulo, Brazil with South Africa a candidate for 2006 and Australia for 2008.

Summary of the significant articles from WALT 2002.

Anderson, S., C. Carati, and N. Piller.
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
as a Treatment for Post-mastectomy Lymhoedema.

Lymphoedema (LO) occurs in 6% to 36% of those undergoing surgery /radiotherapy for breast cancer. Low Level Laser therapy (laser therapy) has used to treat LO sufferers in Australia, with considerable success. To determine the efficacy of treating LO with laser therapy we recently embarked on a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study of laser therapy to the axilla region. The laser therapy unit used emits a pulsed 904nm beam with an average output of 5 mW. The dosage applied was 1.53 J/cm2, with a total of 5.1 Joules being delivered over the whole treatment area. Objective measures were as follows. Perometry (volume and circumference changes), tonometry (changes in tissue fibrosis), range of movement and bioimpedance (measures extra-cellular fluid (ECF) levels) were assessed at regular intervals during treatment or placebo. Patients were asked to report on their "quality of life" and ability to perform activities of daily life. They were also asked to rate their symptoms on a ten-point scale. Results: Initial results show that 6 weeks of laser therapy reduced volume in the both the affected and unaffected arm, when applied to the axilla of the affected arm. The mean reduction in volume was 108ml (p > 0.05) in the affected arm and 40ml (not statistically significant) in the unaffected arm. ECF was also significantly reduced in the affected arm (p < 0.01), the unaffected arm (p < 0.01) and the trunk (p < 0.05). These changes were not seen in the placebo group. Other objective measures were not significantly altered. Twenty five percent of participants in the active group achieved a reduction in their summated subjective scores, compared with 10% in the placebo group. Conclusion: Initial results indicate that LO sufferers are achieving a reduction in volume and ECF levels of both the treated and untreated limbs following laser therapy.

Gabel, C.P. Why LLLT (Laser Therapy) is a Valid Immediate Treatment Tool for Sports injuries.
Laser therapy for acute sports injuries is rationalised using the RICE and HARM models utilised in Sports Medicine injury management. By understanding how laser therapy modes of bio-activation relate to these principles the rationale for laser therapy in the arsenal for acute sports injury management is better comprehended. Laser therapy affects living tissue locally at the site and time of irradiation, predominately through 10 pathways that include:
1. Effects on locally generated ATP through the respiratory chain of the mitochondria.
2. Polarisation on the eurcaryotic cells membrane lipid bi-layer.
3. Influencing effects of the formation of singlet oxygen that neutralises free radical action.
4. The wave effect of light that is addition to the quantum article effect.
5. The reduction in afferent pain transmission.
6. The systemic influence on pain via endogenous opioid formation.
7. Determination of the axoplasmic flow within the neurons.
8. Facilitation of lymphatic flow
9. Influences on permeability of fascial layers inducing the passage of debris and haematoma from the injury site.
10. Systemic effects by changes and modulation of cells and plasma within circulating blood.
Laser is non-thermal, will not increase effusion from blood flow and assists lymphatic drainage. Damaged tissue, with its reduced capacity to produce ATP for normal function and self repair as well as its reduced neural circulation, is facilitated by the bio-activation from laser therapy that stimulates repair to the normal maximal level and consequently at a rate that is generally faster and less painful than that found in untreated tissues.

Nicolau, R. Effect of low ower laser Ga-Al-As (660nm) in the bone stimulation remodulation in mice.
An in vivo controlled study using rat femurs with a specific 10j/cm2 dose at 660nm on 4 occasions over 8 days. The study demonstrated the effects of laser therapy in latently promoting bone remodulation with increased volume at Day 5, increased osteoblast surface at Day 15 and overall improved remodulation at injury sites without changes in bone architecture through increased resorption and formation of bone with higher apposition rates in the treated group by day 25. The work was designated to be significant as it concretely proved the stimulatory effect of laser therapy on bone and opens the way for further research at different wavelengths and doses with leads to positive interventions in the clinical human situation. It is postulated that for humans the wavelength would need to be infrared, higher dose and close to the site of injury. This indicates that at present only superficial bones would be suitable such as tibial and fibula surfaces, meta carpals and tarsals and possibly the scapula, the implant devices are considered a future option for deeper structures.

Yokoyama, K. and K. Sugiyama. Influence of linearly polarised near-infrared irradiation around unilateral stellate ganglion on cerebral blood flow: An analysis using transcranial spectroscopy.
The Japanese pilot study investigated the in-vivo effect of laser therapy radiation to the stellate ganglion of humans with chronic pain and controls and specifically the alterations in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (RCBF). These changes were measures using SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) following IV injection of the Tracer Tc-99m ECD then detection using a triple head rotating gamma camera with fan-beam high resolution collimators. The study demonstrated that laser therapy to the Stellate ganglion using an incident output of 1 watt (ie 1 Joule) on a cycle of 1 sec on to 4 sec off was able to produce a broad and significant increase in the circulation of the RCBF. The proposed action is via changes to the thalamic blood flow, which in turn influences the RCGF and consequentially reduces pain levels. This provides an alternative systemic pathway for chronic pain modulation using laser therapy to that previously demonstrated and proposed by Laakso of who demonstrated systemic effects by significant production of endogenous opiates following laser therapy to Trigger points.

Meersman, P. The battle of Laser Therapy against medication in musculoskeletal disorders: collaboration, alliance or enemy.
Sports Physician Paul Meersman hypothesised the positive and negative interactions between laser therapy and pharmaceuticals terming the latter as laser therapy acceptors or non acceptors. His paper and pilot research work on Achilles tendinopathy management demonstrated that various chemicals commonly used will interfere positively or negatively with laser therapy and would be a logical explanation for the intermittent and often varied results. The biostimulatory action of laser therapy is countered by the presence of NSAIDS and Steroids that are non acceptors of laser therapy, as the latter block the membrane channels and antennae pigment receptors that laser therapy relies upon. The degree of reduction and total effect is variable and determined by blood levels of the chemical and individual cell receptability. Similar actions on the cell membrane and the receptor site and bonds are caused by Beta blockers, Calcium Channel antagonists and several of the cardiac and neurological medications. These effects have till now not often been considered in research work and is more significant when a meta-analysis of the literature is made and such medications is factored in. In this case many of the ‘negative studies’ on laser therapy are found to not have screened and excluded for the potential of pharmaceutical counter effects. In contrast specific chemicals are found to be positive agents for laser therapy that will increase the biostimulative effect by preparing the cell receptors and membrane to be capable of a maximal effect. This facilitatory action of laser therapy acceptors is demonstrated by Plenosol, that is photoreceptive at 660 nm, whilst Ubiquinon Ferrum and Copper based local substances that can be subcutaneously infused are 810nm and 904nm receptive. Clinically, the total effect is that of a two-stage process that uses a combination of local injection or cutaneously absorbed substances that can be administered or applied then irradiated with the specific wavelength. It is also demonstrated that the use of Procaine as the local anaesthetic of choice facilitates the passage of specific photo acceptor substances into the affected tissue effectively acting as a ‘taxi’ whilst serving its primary purpose of local anaesthetic management. The conclusion is that, where possible, medication should be excluded or included if the maximal effect of laser therapy is to be achieved. Where research is initiated to determine the effect of laser therapy, the presence of such chemicals must be considered then noted and factored into the statistical analysis.

Amat, A. Energy Light interaction with molecules with high energy bond.
This presented paper has furthered the theoretical model of the interaction of laser therapy with high energy terminal bonds that improves the understanding of wavelength specificity and ATP bio-disposability. ATP molecules were investigated at different molarities with Luciferin-luciferase reaction before and after exposure to different light sources and wavelengths. The results demonstrated a strong difference between controls and irradiated ATP, particularly those at the near and infrared range (830nm and 904nm).

Samoiliva, K. Systemic mechanisma of anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and wound healing effects of visible and infrared light.
Kira Samoilova produced a paper on the systemic effects of laser therapy on the blood. This paper was a combined in-vivo and in-vitro study that examined the systemic effects of blood that was irradiated subcutaneously or in-vitro then reintroduced to the donor at a ratio of 1:10. The research was conducted following further investigations into the known and accepted treatment effect of neonatal haemolytic blood diseases with visible light that influences the blood makeup through action on the superficial skin micro-vessels. The overall result was that the irradiated blood was able to influence the total blood makeup within the body within a time from of 90 minutes though continuation in changes continued at a slower rate for up to 24 hours. The dose used was 12J/cm2 at 400-2000 nm, 95% polarisation over 15 cm2 area of the back, or in-vitro at the same dose and reintroduction of the autologous sample at a 1:10 volume ratio. This was performed to compare and verify the proposed model that the transcutaneous irradiated blood mixes within the vascular bed with the main circulating volume. The results are summarised as an immediate effect on blood changes due to transcutaneous photo-modification with a fast (30-90minute) translation of light-induced changes to the whole circulating volume. These changes were measured through blood samples at the feet region and were found that with time and regular sampling a specific minute intervals a tracing was shown that demonstrated changes in the cells and plasma of the entire circulating blood. These changes included the increased functional activity of monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, platelets; also improved rheologic, transport and gas-transport properties of erythrocytes; as well as changed lipid peroxidation levels in the erythrocyte membrane and plasma; also modified haemostasis. There are also corresponding decreases in the plasma content of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of anti-inflammatory Il10 and IFN-g; modulated growth content factors and increased growth-promoting plasma properties for keratinocytes, endotheliocytes, fiobroblasts and radiation-damaged autologous cells. The changes were demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the initial measurement levels of these substances consequently indicating the regulatory character of the light.

[8] From Norway Jan Bjordal presented papers on the optimal laser therapy dose for the management of osteoarthritis as determined through a meta-analysis of the literature of randomised placebo-controlled trials using laser therapy to treat pain from osteoarthritis. 88 trials were identified, reduced to 20 being specific to patients with osteoarthritis and chronic joint disease. Five were eliminated for not irradiating the joint capsule and 2 positive trials were also eliminated for not providing sufficient presentation data and using repeated laser irradiation. Of the 13 remaining, 5 reported non-significant results and all were demonstrated to have used treatment parameters outside the predetermined supposed optimal dose range. The 8 trials using treatment parameters with-in the predefined dose range has noticeably higher results. Total patients from data pooling was 398 pooled mean weighted difference of 42.9% (range 23-62). Unblinded follow-up suggested pain reduction for more than 1 month. In summary, location specific treatment with laser therapy appears to be effective in reducing pain from mild osteoarthritis.

Bjordal, J., et al. Low Level Laser Therapy for osteoarthritis. A Meta-analysis with assessment of optimal dose.
In a similar such meta-analysis study investigating the effect of laser therapy in the treatment and management of Tendinopathy, laser therapy was shown to have a 32% effect.

Bjordal, J., J. Demmink, and A.E. Ljunggren. Distance from skin surface and tendon thickness for the most common tendinopathies. An ultrasonography study.
A final paper presented by Bjordal considered tendon depth for penetration and subsequent laser therapy dose. The supraspinatus was found to be 9.6mm deep with variation being increased depth with increased body mass-index, to be up to 19mm in overweight white-collar workers. The hand behind back position reduced depth by an average of 1.1mm and is recommended. Depths and thickness summary were:

Tendon Depth Mean Thickness
Supraspinatus 9.6 mm 6.6 mm
Common extensors forearm 12 mm 1.5 mm
Achilles 1.6 mm 5.5mm
Patella tendon 3.1 mm 5.8 mm

 

Men had significantly larger tendons but differences were small (0.3 mm). Thickness variation was large, particularly the Patella ranging from 4.2 to 7.9 mm. Individual differences never exceeded =/- 15% in healthy tendons so that side comparison tendon thickness may be a reliable diagnostic marker in unilateral tendinopathies.

Longo, L., M. Marchi, and M. Postiglione.
Comparison among three different types of lasers for fibromyositis treatment.

From Leonardo Longo, Italy the determination of the preferred wavelength for the management of fibromyositis. The use of laser therapy for the treatment of fibromyositis and sports traumatology. The laser therapy units compared were 904nm, 810nm and CO2 laser by means of alternating treatment using a minimum treatment of 2-3 cycles from 10-15 sessions per cycle using the 3 different lasers in each individual cycle .The patients were followed over a 5 year period. Statistical analysis of results from a satisfaction survey of patient evaluation of treatment effectiveness on a 4 point Scale from No result to Poor, Good and Best demonstrate that the 810 nm laser diode provides the best result.

The most promising areas at the moment seem to be wound healing, nerve regeneration and pain control for musculoskeletal disorders like tendinopathy and joint disorders, and lymphatic disorders. In all these areas scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of Laser Therapy is growing, and they have in some cases reached an evidence level that equals that of traditional medical therapies. Jeffrey Basford from the Mayo Clinic, USA also pointed it out that the task of providing evidence for effectiveness for laser therapy and other physical agents is probably more difficult than for drugs, due to the many variables involved. David Baxter from the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland argued that advanced systematic reviews which also address dose and penetration parameters, might enhance our understanding and help to optimise effects from laser therapy. Paul Bradley of Nova Southeastern University, USA, even suggested that the future might bring possibilities for adjusting dose both to stimulate or inhibit (like situations with excessive scar formation) fibroblast cell activity according to the goals we set for treatments.

At the WALT General Assembly the following board was elected for the next two years: President prof. Kazou Hanaoka, Japan; Secretary General prof. Junichiro Kubota, Japan, Treasurer Dr. Paul Meersman, Belgium; Membership Secretary Dr. Jan Tunér, Sweden. Prof. Chukuka Enwemeka, USA, will continue as editor-in-chief of the journal Laser Therapy.



 

ABOUT TIME TO GET TO SPEAK THE SAME LANGUAGE

Corral-Baqués, Marc-Ignasi MD, MSc; Rigau, Josepa MD, PhD
Unitat d'Histologia i Neurobiologia. Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut. Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus -Spain

 


INTRODUCTION

The scientific method is a tool used in order to progress using the new discoveries to make new ones. Therefore to be able to progress in science it's necessary:

- la creació d'unes bases
- la evolución a partir de las mismas
- création des nouveaux paradigmes
- Öffnung der neues Forschungen spurs
- E si non si parla la stessa lingua

Probably, what's happened to you after reading these lines is the same that happens when going through the published data on the laser field.

To begin a new research study, some previous data gathering has to be done, in order to have adequate bases to start from. This data should be obtained through literature research. We've gone through more than 150 papers in search of conclusive data to develop new treating parameters for skeletal muscle injury. We were especially concerned, among the different parameters, on the frequencies used. Of those papers, only 35 reported the used frequency, but just 25 of them specified all the parameters (fluence, radiance, spot, etc) and just 6 were done in vitro.
In order to make the most of the gathered information, we built charts of each wavelength and the different frequencies used depending on the pretended effect (table 1, 2 and 3).

DATA ANALISYS

Focusing just on the 904 nm wavelength (table 3), we've noticed:
- That most of the articles were previous to 1990 (a big fall not understandable when considering that up to 84% of the reviewed papers showed positive effects) with a big increase on papers dealing with the 820 nm.
- From the 26 papers found dealing with 904 nm, we've identified 29 different frequencies (no related among themselves, that is, not based on previous studies).
- From that table we can conclude that, to get an analgesic effect we need a frequency in the range from 4 Hz to 5120 Hz (that means any frequency is supposed to be useful).
- The same happens with the trophic effect, any frequency from 5 Hz to 10000 Hz is supposed to be equally effective.
- If we are to compare other parameters (power density, energy density, etc.) we will get to the same point: it's impossible to make any sense out of it.

ERGO: it's impossible to extract any conclusions as a starting point to start new researches in order to find more suitable working parameters.


JUSTIFYING PARAMETERS

- The fact that the different authors don't justify the used parameters, plus the great variety among them, makes us think there's been no previous research on parameters to work with.
- Probably those parameters depended on the technical possibilities of their equipment. In fact, two authors stated that the frequency they used were those recommended by the laser company supplier.


DISCUSSION

After all the discussed problems, there is a question that comes easily to the mind: Is the frequency an important parameter to take into account when dealing with a laser or it simply has no outstanding effect?

In the laser field we are still trying to prove that the laser works, when we should be already trying to find the best-suited parameters.

CONCLUSIONS

- It's impossible to compare the effects of different parameters (power density, energy density, frequency, etc.).
- Used parameters have to be based on previous bibliography.
- Information should be standardisedly given.
- Different research groups should work with similar conditions.
- There's still a big gap in the basic research field, that's why it's time to get to speak the same language.


REFERENCES

Bolton P, Young S, Dyson M. Macrophage Responsiveness to Light Therapy with Varying Power and Energy Densities. Laser Therapy. 1991; 3: 105-108
Lucas C. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Treatment in the Management of Chronic Wounds. PrintPartners Ipskamp, Amsterdam-Enschede. ISBN: 90-9015244-X
Chelyshev Y, Kubitsky A. Effect of Infra-red Low-power Laser Irradiation on Regeneration of Myelinated Axons. Lasers Med Scie 1995, 10: 273-277
El Sayed S.O. Effect of Laser Pulse Repetition Rate and Pulse Duration on Mast Cell Number and Degranulation. Lasers Surg. Med. 1996; 19: 433-437
Karu T. The Science of Lower-Power Laser Therapy. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Amsterdam, 1998.
Karu T, et al. Thiol reactive Agents Eliminate Stimulation of Cell Attachment to Extracellular Matrices Induced by Irradiation at =820 nm: possible involvement of cellular Redox Status Into Low Laser Affects. Laser Therapy; 1999; 11(4):177-187
Kapinosov IK, et al. Reaction of Lymphoid Organs to Laser Radiation with Different Pulsation Rates. Proc. Optical Diagnostitcs of Living Cells and Fluids. SPIE 1996; 2678: 530-533
Kucerová H, et al. Modulatory Frequency of Laser in Connection to Laser Beam Therapeutic Effect. SPIE 1998; 3248: 0277-786
Lam TS, Abergel RP, Castel JC, Dwyer RM, Uitto J. Biostimulation of Collagen Synthesis in Human Skin Fibroblast Cultures. Lasers Life Sci 1987; 1: 61-77
Lievens P.C. Laser-thérapie: Théorie et Applications Practiques. Editions Frison-Roche Paris. 1989
Longo L, Evangelista S, Tinacci G, Sesti AG. Effect of Diodes-Laser Silver Arsenide-Aluminium (Ga-Al-As) 904 nm on Heling of Experimental Wounds. Lasers Surg Med 1987; 7: 444-447
Lowe AS, Walker MD, O'Byrne M, Baxter GD, Hirst DG. Effect of Low Intensity Monochromatic Light Therapy (890 nm) on a Radiation Impaired, Wound-Healing Model in Murine Skin. Lasers Surg Med 1998; 23 : 291-298.
Meersman P. Laser Pharmacology and Achilles Tendinopathy. Laser Therapy. 1999; 11(3):144-150.
Nisan M (Nisselevitch), Rochkind S. Nerve Testing Models: Instrumentation and Techniques for investigation of the Influence of Low Incident Levels of Laser Irradiation on the Peripheral Nerve. Laser Therapy, 1995; 7: 169-174
Pöntinen P. Low Level Laser Therapy as a Medical Treatment Modality A Manual for Physicians, Dentists, Physiotherapists and Veterinary Surgeons. Art Urpo Ltd. Tampere 1992
Santiesteban J.M., Avila I., Vélez, M. Terapia láser en la sutura quirúrgica de nervios periféricos. Bol. CDL 1988; 17
Shiroto C, Sugawara K, Kumae T, Ono Y, Sasaki M, Oshiro T. Effect of Diode Laser Radiation in Vitro on Activity of Human Neutrophils. Laser Ther 1989: 135-140.
Tam G. Low power Laser Therapy and Analgesic Action. J. Clinical Laser Med Surg; 1999; 17(1): 29-33

Frequencies used in various studies

820 nm

Author

Year

Model

Function

Results

2.5

Salah O. El Sayed

1996

Animal

Trophic

Positive

4.5

Karu

1998

In vitro

Chemolumin.

Positive

10

Karu

1999

In vitro

Cell adhesive/trophic

Positive

20

Salah O. El Sayed

1996

Animal

Trophic

Positive

16

Walsh

1992

Animal

Nerve. Conduction

Negative

Baxter

1992

Human

Antialgic

Positive

73

Walsh

1992

Animal

Nerve. conduction

Negative

292

Salah O. El Sayed

1996

Animal

Trophic

Positive

5000

Walsh

1992

Animal

Nerve. Conduction

Positive

Bolton

1991

Fibroblast

Trophic

Positive

20000

Salah O. El Sayed

1996

Animal

Trophic

Positive

 

890 nm

Author

Year

Model

Function

Results

270

Lowe

1998

Animal

Trophic

Negative

666

Zharov

1987

In vitro/ E. Coli

Trophic

Positive

3000

Yu, Chelyshev

1995

Animal nerve

Trophic

Positive

3200

Yu, Chelyshev

1995

Animal nerve

Trophic

Positive

3480

Zharov

1987

In vitro/bacteria

Trophic (-)/Inhib(+)

Dose dependent

904 nm

Author

Year

Model

Function

Results

4

Ponnudari

1987

Human

Analgesic

Positive

5

Kucerová

1998

Animal

Trophic (inmunosup)

Negative

10

Tam

1999

Human

Analgesic

Positive

60

Ponnudari

1987

Human

Analgesic

Positive

67

Karu

1998

In vitro

Ascorbic acid absorption

Positive

Labbe

1991

In vitro

Ascorbic acid consumption

Positive

73

Lundeberg

1987

Human

Analgesic

Negative

Lam

1987

Human fibroblast

Trophic

Positive

80

Kapinosov

1996

Animal

Stimulator

Positive

100

Lievens

1989

Human

Stimulator

Positive

200

Ponnudari

1987

Human

Analgesic

Negative

250

Jensen

1987

Human

Analgesic

Negative effect

292

Kucerová

1998

Animal

Trophic (inmunosup)

Poor

500

Lievens

1989

Human

Stimulator

Positive

700

Dyson

1985/6

Animal

Trophic

Positive

800

Kokino

1985

Animal

Trophic

Positive

Dyson

1985/6

Animal

Trophic

Positive

830

Lucas

2000

Human

Trophic

Negative

900

Nissan, Rochkind

1995

Animal nerve

Trophic

Poor

1000

Willner

1985

Human

Analgesic

Positive

Lievens

1989

Human

Phisic

Positive

1024

Shiroto

1989

Human blood

Stimulation of phagocytes

Poor

1200

Dyson

1985/6

Animal

Trophic

Negative

1500

Longo

1987

Animal

Trophic

Positive

Willner

1985/7

Human

Antialgic

Positive

Kapinosov

1996

Animal

Trophic

Positive

2500

Molina Soto/Molero

1987

Human

Antinflammatory

Positive

3000

Longo

1987

Animal

Trophic

Negative

Kapinosov

1996

Animal

Inhibitive

Positive

3040

Mezawa

1988

Animal

Analgesic

Positive

4000

England

1989

Human

Analgesic

Positive

4500

Nissanl

1995

Animal nerve

Trophic

Poor

5000

Vélez

1988

Animal nerv

Trophic

Positive

Molina Soto/Molero

1987

Human

Antinflammatory

Positive

Lievens

1989

Human

Deep stimu-lation,lymphatic

Positive

5120

Tam

1999

Human

Analgesic

Positive

9000

Kucerová

1998

Animal

Trophic

Positive

10000

Houghton

1999

Animal

Trophic

Positive

Meersman

1999

Human

Antialgic

Positive

Lievens

1989

Human

Deep stimula-tion, lymphatic

Positive

 


 
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By Jan Tunér DDS

 

8th International Congress of the European Medical Laser Association in Moscow
Miroslav Prochazka, Member of EMLA Parliament, Prague, CZ, Premysl Fryda, Member of EMLA Parliament, Prague, CZ No:  17-19

Biostimulatory Windows in Low Intensity Laser Activation:
Lasers, Scanners and NASA's Light Emitting Diode Array System
By Dr. Andrei P. Sommer.

The Cochrane analyses - can they be improved?
Jan Tunér DDS

 

The mangement of diabetic neuropathic ulceration by HeNe laser.
The following photo sequence has been contributed
By Dr. Ali Abaci, Turkey

Laser irradiation of the blood
By Levon Gasparyan, MD, PhD

Laser Treatment for Tendinitis
By Jan M. Bjordal, PT-MSc,


LOW INTENSITY LASER THERAPY TO TREAT DENTIN HYPERSENSITIVITY - COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY USING DIFFERENT LIGHT DOSES
By Rosane de Fátima Zanirato Lizarellia ; Marcelo de Oliveira Mazzettob ; Vanderlei Salvador Bagnatoa

LLLT and the healthy rat model for wound healing research -
is it a feasible idea?
Interview with Dr. Farouk Al-Watban

  Low level laser therapy (LLLT) - Does it damage DNA?
By K.O.Greulich


Laser and Plaquex treatment on cryoglobolic vasculitis on diabetic foot
(Case report summary)
By Anita Baxas


The Roles of Laser Therapy in tissue Repair and Sports Injuries
By Chukuka S. Enwemeka, P.T., Ph.D.,


Regulation of Medical Devices in Australia
By Peter A. Jenkins MBA

  Low-level laser therapy after molar extraction
Hana Kucerováa, Tatjana Dostálováa, Lucie Himmlováa, Jirina Bártováa, Jirí Mazánekb
  100 positive double blind studies - enough or too little?
By Jan Tunér DDS
Lars Hode, Dr Sci

Treatment of Chronic Rheumatoid Arthritis
by Low Power Laser(1)
By Kazuyoshi Zenba,,

Lymphoedema and Laser Therapy
By Ann Thelander

LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY IN DENTISTRY - PREVENTIVE PERFORMANCE.
By Dr. Rosane Lizarelli, DDS
  Chemo-induced mucositis. Results of multicenter phase III studies.
By René-Jean Bensadoun,

LaserWorld Guest Editorial, Tiina I.Karu - April 1999.
HOW TO FILL UP A GAP?

Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis by Low Power Laser
Takao Igarashi, MD


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